| Glossary of Terms
Supplement to E-Volve-or-Die.com
Chair, ECM Symposiums
Executive Producer, ECMgt.com
Founder and Coordinator, SJSU-PD ECM Certificate Program
ACH-Automated Clearing House [See also NACHA].
ANA-Article Numbering Association introduced bar
coding into the U.K. on supermarket goods and later developed the TRADACOMS standards
for use in TRADANET.
Standards Institute. Parent organization of X12. The group is the recognized coordinator
and clearing-house for information on U.S. and in some cases Canadian national
standards. Also serves as the North American representative to the ISO (International
ANSI ASC X12-American
National Standards Institute Accredited Standards Committee X12 [Sec ASC X12].
ANSI Number: A number assigned to a data element
(defined in the ASC X12 Data Dictionary)
Standard: A published transaction set that has been approved by ANSI. Standards
are reviewed for updating every six months.
Systems Automated Purchasing. Electronic order entry system for hospitals.
ASC X12-Accredited Standards Committee X12. Composed
of industry members who help create EDI standards for submission to ANSI for subsequent
approval and dissemination (or to the UN/ECE, for approval and submission of UN/EDIFACT
ASN-Advance Shipment Notice.
Alphabetic character set-A character set that contains letters and may contain
control characters and special characters but not digits [ISO 2382/4].
Acquiring bank: An acquiring bank provides merchants
with Internet Merchant Accounts.
Number of times that a viewer clicks on an ad banner. The metric is also referred
to as CPM or "Clicks per Thousand" as in how many times is an ad "clicked on"
for every one thousand page views generated.
Verification Process: A process used by a credit card processor or other parties
to verify that a customer's ordering address matches their records.
A procedure for solving a mathematical problem in a finite number of steps that
frequently involves repetition of an operation. Named after an Arab mathematician:
al-Khuwarizmi ~ 825 A.D.
Set: A character set that contains both letters and digits and may contain control
characters and special characters [ISO 2382/4].
Acknowledgment : An X12 transaction that responds to a transaction
set that has been received and processed in an application program.
Advice : An X12 transaction set that accepts, rejects, or identifies
errors in the content of any transaction set beyond the normal syntax checks.
Application Programming Interface (API): The software
component that transfers electronic transactions between application systems.
Application Link Software: A software pro-gram
that provides a link between an application program and an industry data format
or fixed-field format.
type: A basic message type adapted to suit a certain application area.
Application-to-Application: The direct interchange
of data from one computer to another, without rekeying. Applications software-Computer
pro-grams that perform common internal business or personal tasks purchased from
soft-ware vendors or stores. An example is Order Processing.
The design and structure of computer components.
The storing of records or files for purposes of security, back-up, and auditing.
Asynchronous: A communication technique by which
each character is sent bit-serially and is surrounded by start and stop bits used
to indicate character borders.
Modems: Modulators/ demodulators for communication via an asynchronous technique.
They generate and recognize start and stop bits.
Transmission: Communications via one of the asynchronous protocols.
Trail: A computerized or manual record of transactions.
A mechanism that allows the receiver of an electronic transmission to verify the
sender as well as the integrity of a transmission's content through the use of
an electronic "key" or algorithm shared by the trading partners. This is sometimes
referred to an electronic signature.
Key: A short string of characters used to authenticate transactions between trading
Authorization: The process of
checking the validity and available balance of a customer's credit card before
the transaction can be accepted.
The ability of a modem to access a network, automatically dial, and connect to
BOL - Bill of Lading.
- Bill of Materials
Bar Code: An array
of' rectangular marks and spaces in a predetermined pattern. [Ref. AIAG-B-1
"Bar Code Symbology Standard 8-or-9"]. Usually used for automatic product
or shipment identification.
The amount of information (web pages, text, graphics, video, sound, etc) that
is downloaded through a connection, and constrained by the amount of data that
the Modem and baud rates can handle
or Banner Ad: An interactive ad placed on a web page that is linked to an external
advertiser's website or another internal page within the same website.
Batch Control Totals: Ensures that batch processing
has been performed correctly by comparing output to dollar or quantity totals,
record or document counts, or hash totals.
Processing: The processing of computer information after it has accumulated in
one group or batch.
Baud: The rate at which
the signal changes when data is transmitted. It is often the same as the number
of bits per second. Common rates for dial up connections are 1200, 2400 4800,
9600, 19,200, 38,400 and 56,000 [kilo]bytes/second. Higher speed rates
are associated with cable networks, local area networks, wide area networks and
Binary: A system
of numerical notation in which only the values of 0 and 1 are used.
A communication protocol whereby messages are sent as blocks of characters. The
blocks of data are checked for completeness and accuracy by the receiving computer.
Bisynchronous Transmission: This is an IBM version
of synchronous communication that uses additional codes. Bisync is more a protocol
than a type of transmission.
ability to transmit one message to several destinations.
Attack: A network security breach in which all possible keys are attempted.
Buffer: A reserved area of memory the operating
system uses to temporarily store data to compensate for differences in speed or
in the timing of events between the CPU and the input/output devices.
A string of seven or eight bits. The length of the string determines the amount
of data that can be represented. The eight-bit byte can represent numerous special
characters, 26 uppercase and lowercase alphabetic characters, and 10 numeric digits,
totaling 256 possible combinations.
Aided Design and Manufacturing
Cooperation Council [worldwide]
Concentration and Disbursement. Developed by NACHA for the electronic transfer
of funds between companies and trading partners. Allows 60 characters of information
in addition to the dollar amount.
Concentration and Disbursement Plus the "Plus" refers to "705 Addenda"
CCDX-Cash Concentration and Disbursement with
CCITT-Comite Consultatif International
Telegraphique et Telephonique (Consultative Committee for International Telegraph
and Telephone). An international organization of public telecommunication companies
it sets standards for the industry by working in four-year periods of study CEBIS-EDIFACT
Database of the European Commission.
Committee for Standardization. The group responsible for setting the standards
for the European Economic Community.
House Automated Payments System [Great Britain].
House Interbank Payments System. Clears world trade transactions in dollar denominations
Data Exchange. The U.S. chemical industry's association for development of an
industry guideline based on the X12 standards. The term CIDX is also used to describe
the industry guideline itself. COMPAT-An annual computer-aided trade conference
coordinated by the European Community.
Canadian Payments Association. Canada's national check and payment clearing and
settlement system 2. Canadian Petroleum Association. CPA 005-Canadian Payment
Standard 005. Canadian standards for the exchange of check transactions using
CTP-Corporate Trade Payment.
An electronic message system that allows one dollar amount to cover several invoices.
CTX-1. An electronic funds transfer for-mat compatible
with X12. It carries information about a payment as well as transferring value
2. Corporate Trade Exchange. SDEC-EDIFACT standard for the European Customs Declaration
"Card Not Present" Merchant Account:
An account that allows merchants to process credit cards without a face to face
transaction with the purchaser.
Authority: A Certificate Authority (CA) is a "trusted third-party" organization
that verifies the identity of merchants and their sites. The certificate authority
issues a certificate (also called a digital certificate or an authentication certificate)
to an applicant company, which can then put the certificate up on its site. Thawte
and Verisign are two such Certification Authorities. The CA's chief function is
to verify the identity of entities and issue digital certificates attesting to
Certificate Revocation List:
A list maintained by the Certification Authority of all certificates that are
revoked but not expired. A certificate may be revoked because the user's private
key is assumed to be compromised, the user is no longer certified by this Certification
Authority, or the Certification Authority 's private key is assumed to be compromised.
Character: Markings that represent data, including
alphabetic (A-Z), numeric (0-9), and special (such as punctuation marks).
Character Set: A finite set of different characters
that is considered complete for a given purpose [ISO 2382/4].
Any encryption algorithm. Ciphers can be symmetric, or public-key algorithms they
can be transferred as a data stream or divided into blocks
Text that has been encrypted by some encryption system, as opposed to "plaintext."
Clearinghouse: A third party used for centralizing
the sending and receiving of electronic messages or documents between trading
partners. Messages/documents are held by the third party until the receiver is
avail-able to receive them.
Sophisticated, multi-part software program that turns a high-performance server
into a World Wide Web site capable of handling online transactions and related
functions including database and inventory management, order taking, billing,
security and customer service. It manages and maintains all transactional and
backend data for a commerce website.
Network: A third-party intermediary that receives EDI transmissions from the source
and reroutes them to the appropriate receiver. [See VAN]
Board: A computer device containing electronic circuits which facilitates communication
via a telephone line.
The identification of line speed and protocol, which enables computers to transfer
data between communication devices.
Port: The location where data enters the computer system via a telephone line.
Communication Protocol: The method by which two
computers coordinate their communications. BISYNC and MNP are two examples.
Communication Session: The computer-to-computer
transmission of data.
A standard of message transmittal, facilitating message conveyance rather than
formats and content. [See also Message Standard]
Controller: A telecommunications device that controls and prioritizes network
Checking process used to ensure that a transmission complies with ANSI X12 syntax
Component Data Element: In EDIFACT,
a simple data element that is a subordinate portion of a composite data element
and is identified by its position within the composite data element.
Data Element Separator: In EDIFACT, a character used to separate the component
data elements in a composite data element.
Data Element: One or more component data elements delimited by component data
element separators. Currently used only in the EDIFACT standards.
Direct communication between two computers eliminates rekeying of data.
Conditional: A data element requirement designator
that indicates that the presence of a specified data element is dependent on the
value or presence of other data elements in the segment. The condition must be
stated and must be able to be computer-processed.
A notification that the transmission has been received by the intended receiver
[See also Functional acknowledgment].
Time: The elapsed time a computer device is connected to a circuit. Connection-An
established link for transmission of data.
The ability to connect incompatible computer or network systems, enabling them
Control Envelope: Used
to validate the receipt of correct and complete data
number: Also known as reference number. An identification number used to distinguish
a standard data element (data element identifier) or a standard segment (segment
Control Segment: A control
segment that has the same structure as a data segment but is used for transferring
control information for grouping data segments.
Structure: The beginning and end (header and trailer) segments for entities in
Control Validation: Confirmation that
information within the control segments is correct.
A subset of a broader standard used by an industry that does not require the generality
of an ANSI X12 standard.
Standard: Data standards that apply to and are adopted by several industries-ANSI
X12, for example.
Cross Promotion: The
promotion of a website through other traditional forms of advertising such as
magazines, newspapers, radio, TV, billboards, etc.
The practice and study of encryption and decryption -- encoding data so that it
can only be decoded by specific individuals. A system for encrypting and decrypting
data is a cryptosystem. This usually involves an algorithm for combining the original
data (plaintext) with one or more keys -- numbers or strings of characters known
only to the sender and recipient. The resulting output is known as ciphertext.
Encryption Standard. The use of a binary number with a key of more than 72 quadrillion
combinations to scramble the transmission of a message. DES is the popular, standard
encryption algorithm of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
DEX/UCS-Direct Exchange UCS. A standard form for
UCS Electronic Data Inter-change between computers via direct links [See also
DISA-Data Interchange Standards
Association. The secretariat of the X12 Commit-tee and North American EDIFACT
DSD-Direct Store Delivery. The practice
of delivering product directly to the retail store and notifying the store of
the delivery electronically rather than by paper.
Support System. Software designed to assist in decision-making by providing analytical
programs and data avail-able on mainframes by linking the micro-computers to the
DUNS Number-Dun & Bradstreet
identification number often used in EDI transmissions.
A representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable
for communication, interpretation, or processing by human beings or by automatic
means [ISO 2382/1].
Transmission of digital data over a communication channel from one device to another.
Data Dictionary: The publication that defines
all of the data elements for which standards exist. The most widely used data
dictionary for EDI is the JEDI dictionary.
Element: The basic units of information in the EDI standards, containing a set
of values that represent a singular fact. They may be single character codes,
literal descriptions, or numeric values.
Element Directory: A listing of identified, named, and described data element
attributes, with specifications as to how the corresponding data element values
shall be represented.
Data Element Length:
The range, minimum to maximum, of the number of character positions available
to represent the value of a data element. A data element may be of variable length,
with a range from minimum to maximum, or it may be of fixed-length, in which the
minimum is equal to the maximum.
Name: The name given to the basic unit of information.
element Reference Number: The reference number assigned to each data element as
a unique identifier.
Data Element Representation:
Defines the data element type.
Requirement Designator: A code defining the need for a data element value to appear
in the segment if the segment is transmitted. The codes are mandatory (M), optional
(O), or conditional (C).
Data Element Separator:
A unique character preceding each data element that is used to delimit data elements
within a segment.
Data Element Type: A
data element may be one of six types: numeric, decimal, identifier, string, date,
Data Element Value: The specific
entry of an identified data element represented as specified in a data elements
Data Mapping: The relationship
between the user's data and the X12 message syntax.
Segment: A data segment is the inter-mediate unit of information in a message.
A segment consists of a pre-defined set of functionally related data elements
which are identified by their sequential positions within the set. A segment begins
with a segment identifier- a unique three-character alphabetic upper-case code
(EDIFACT) or a two- or three-character code composed of upper-case characters
and digits (X12)-that uniquely identifies each segment, and ends with a segment
terminator. When data segments are combined to form a message, their relationship
to the message is specified by a Data Segment Requirement Designator and a Data
Segment Sequence. An EDI data segment is analogous to a logical record.
Data Segment Directory: The publication that shows
the format of all segments in the standard. Data segment requirement designator-A
data segment has one of the following requirement designators in a specific message
type: 1. Mandatory-segment must occur in the message 2. Conditional-segment will
occur in the message depending on agreed conditions. The relevant conditions must
be given as part of the message definition 3. Optional-segment may or may not
Deauthentication: The process of
the receiver authenticating a transmission by the use of an authentication key.
Decoder: A device that transcribes protocol signals
onto a screen in the videotext sys-tem.
The translation of scrambled or secretly coded data at the receiving end of an
encrypted transmission [See also Encryption].
Line: A point-to-point line in a data communication system between two computer
devices that is always connected.
Settings: Instructions to the computer, automatically establishing standard configurations
at the time of logon. They eliminate the need to reconfigure at each sitting.
Delayed Settlement Processing: Once a transaction
has been authorized, the merchant must ship the hard goods before a transaction
can be settled. Delayed settlements are stored online until the merchant selects
the transactions for settlement.
An integral part of the transferred data stream, they consist of two levels of
separators and a terminator. Delimiters are specified in the interchange header.
From highest- to lowest-level, the separators and terminator are segment terminator,
data element separator, and component element separator (used only in EDIFACT).
Digital or Electronic Cash (e-cash): Refers to
any of several schemes that allow a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting
a number from one computer to another. These numbers are issued by a bank, and
represent real sums of money. E-cash is anonymous and reusable.
Certificate or Digital ID: A digital document designed to address several security
issues including authentication and non-repudiation when executing business transactions
via the Internet. The certificate contains information about the certification
authority, the owners of the certificate, a public key, the period the certificate
is valid for, and the host to whom the certificate was issued. Digital Certificates
are issued by companies, such as Verisign, that act as "trusted third parties."
A Digital Certificate is digitally "signed" by a certification authority so that
none of the details can be changed without invalidating the signature. A digital
certificate verifies to the shopper that the virtual store is actually associated
with a physical address and phone number, which can increase the shoppers confidence
in the authenticity of the merchant.
Signature: Extra data appended to a message that identifies and authenticates
the sender and message data using public-key encryption.
Transmission: The exchange of data from the computer of the sender directly to
the computer of the receiver. A third-party value-added service is not used in
a direct transmission. Synonym for point-to-point.
The process of cutting out the middleman. By selling directly to customers via
the Internet, companies bypass traditional middle channels such as retail stores.
Distribution Channel: The method through which
a product is sold including retailers, catalogers, internet commerce web sites,
Document: A transaction set or message.
Document standards-Approved standards of form for EDI business transaction sets.
Document Translation: The process of transforming
documents into a standard acceptable format. The document is input by the sender
or created by the originating application and the translator formulates the document
into a standard format then the document can be received at the receiver end.
Documentation: The written description and instructions
regarding the operation of a system, program, or standard.
Name Server (DNS): provides the IP address translation for a given computer's
domain name. In other words DNS associates computer name such as gary.work.com
with the machine's actual numeric IP address. (website).
Download: The transfer of information from the
internet to the browsing computer.
Ship: The shipping of a product directly from the manufacturer to the customer
without requiring inventory carrying by the retailer.
File transfer from one computer to an computer over a network.
Standard for Trial Use: Represents a transaction set approved for publication
by the full X12 committee, following member-ship consensus and subsequent resolution
of negative votes. The Draft EDI Standard for Trial Use document represents an
ASC X12- approved standard for use prior to approval by ANSI and public review.
Dumb Terminal: Composed of a keyboard and monitor
has no computing power of its own.
or Half: Full duplex means that the communications system is capable of sending/receiving
data in both directions at one time. Half duplex means that the sys-tem can send/receive
in only one direction at a time.
EAGLE-Hardware industry's standard data format.
EAN-International Article Numbering Association
EC-1 . European Community-Consisting of the 12 members of the European Economic
Community 2. Electronic Commerce- Conducting business between computers through
the use of digital exchange [U.S. Department of Defense EC/ EDI/PLUS program].
EDI translation-The conversion of application
data to and from a standard format.
Translator-Computer software used to perform the conversion of application data
to and from a standard. Usually licensed rather than developed in-house. May have
subsystems for mapping, auditing, and document management.
Data Interchange Association. The EDIA in the U.S. was formerly known as TDCC
and administered the development of standards in transportation and other industries.
The EDIA of the U.K. is very active in the United Kingdom, as is the EDIA in New
Zealand. All are non-profit organizations dedicated to encouraging EDI growth.
EDICA-Electronic Data Interchange Council of Australia.
Similar organizations exist in Canada, Korea, New Zealand, and the U.S.
EDIFACT-EDI For Administration, Commerce and Trade.
A set of internationally agreed-upon standards and guidelines for the electronic
interchange of structured data among independent computerized information systems.
EDIFACT is the most recently developed set of standards and is still under development.
EDIFICE-Electronic Data Interchange Forum for
Companies Interested in Computing and Electronics. EDI for the electronics industry
of the European Community.
responsible for the administration of EDI in France. EDX-Electronic Data Interchange
for the Electrical Industry. The term represents both the standards organization
and the published industry guidelines.
Funds Transfer. Information passed between banks that results in debits and credits,
i.e., value transfer.
Industry Data Exchange. Industry group that makes recommendations to X12.
Electronic-Cash: Electronic currency that substitutes
for money in online transactions, including secured credit cards, electronic checks
and digital coins. Also proper name for digital payment system licensed by DigiCash.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): The inter-company
computer-to-computer transmission of business data in a standard format. For pure
EDI, "computer-to-computer" means "original-application-program to processing-application-program"
To the purist, EDI consists only of business data, not verbiage or free-form messages.
Purists also may contend that a "standard" format is one that has been approved
by a national or international standards organization, as distinguished from formats
developed by industry groups or individual companies. It is being increasingly
used to great effect worldwide, most commonly, but not exclusively, for purchasing
and distribution - orders, confirmations, shipping papers and invoices - but also
for dentists payments and the distribution of exam results. Created by the Federal
Government in the early 1970s, it is used 95% of the time by Fortune 1000 companies.
Electronic Checks: Pioneered by companies such
as CyberCash, this is an electronic checking system that takes money from the
users' checking accounts at their financial institutions.
Commerce: The buying and selling of goods and services across the Internet. An
e-commerce site can be as simple as a catalog page with a phone number, or it
can range all the way to a real-time credit card processing site where customers
can purchase downloadable goods and receive them on the spot. Electronic commerce
merchants can range from the small business with a few items for sale all the
way to a large on-line retailer such as Amazon.com.
Classified By Relationship
Business to Business Transactions
Business to Administration
Consumer to Administration
1) Business to Business transactions:
example, a company that uses a network for ordering from suppliers, receiving
invoices, and making payments. This is a well-established category that has its
roots in EDI (Electronic Data Interchange).
Business to Consumer:
This category mainly
refers to electronic retailing. This category has exploded as a result of the
advent of the web.
3) Business to Administration:
Business to Administration E-commerce refers to
transactions between companies and government entities. This category is in its
early stages, but the Federal government and other governments have announced
intentions to use more E-commerce. Companies wishing to work with government agencies
are moving to E-commerce for this purpose.
Consumer to Administration:
take the form of paying one's taxes electronically and similar methods for consumers
to interact with governmental agencies.
mailbox: Analogous to a post office box, a repository of information usually provided
by an EDI network, belonging to a single user. The mailbox makes it unnecessary
for the user to provide dedicated hardware for the purpose of awaiting incoming
calls. It also facilitates consolidation of EDI transactions allowing the user
to send to multiple receivers in a single session.
Purse: Using smart card technology an electronic purse is created with cash stored
electronically on a microchip, creating a pre-payment card which can then be used
to buy a range of goods and services. This allows the safe transfer of value to
another electronic purse. Trials are underway in many countries - in the UK, the
Mondex trial started in 1995 (see also Electronic Wallet and Wallet).
Software Distribution (ESD): ESD is the commerce model of the Internet whereby
digital products are purchased at Web storefronts and downloaded direct to purchasers'
desktops. This system is only valid for software/softgoods and is not the model
for physically shipping a product.
Wallet: This is a payment system that stores credit card numbers on your hard
drive in encrypted form. The user can then make purchases at sites that support
their electronic wallet (see also Wallet and Electronic Purse).
The smallest item of information in the standard. Analogous to a "field."
Element Delimiter: Single character delimiter
follows the segment identifier and each data element in a segment except the last.
Element Reference Number: The number that identifies
each element from the segment diagram with its corresponding definition in the
data dictionary. Also known as a "data element number."
Separator: A special character used to separate elements in a segment. The suggested
character is a special control character called an RS or record separator.
Encryption: The encoding and scrambling of data.
Data is encrypted at the sending end and decrypted on the receiving end through
the use of a predetermined algorithm and unique key. Encryption is done for reasons
of information privacy and security.
Receipts Settlement: Method for initiating payment to a supplier that replaces
the invoice. Used primarily in the automobile industry. First, the price is agreed
upon through the use of a blanket or other type of purchase order. Next, a material
release tells the supplier the quantity to deliver. An advance ship notice con-firms
the quantity actually being delivered, and payment is triggered upon receipt.
Event-Driven EDI: Applications and translator
exchanging message sets as soon as they are created or received.
An extension of a company's Intranet to its trading partners using Internet communication
protocols and Web browser technology. Extranets are run for the purpose of facilitating
activities between companies in the conduct of their supply chain.
FEDI-Financial Electronic Data Interchange (FEDI).
Involves the computer-to-computer transmission of both payment instructions and
remittance details using international message standards. An example would be
trade payments - e.g. a retailer sending a payment to a supplier in payment of
Firewall: Computer hardware,
software and physical measures which protect confidential information whilst it
is on a web server A type of gateway that protects private networks from eavesdropping,
intrusion, and other attacks from the Internet by intercepting all traffic to
and from the network.
Fedwire: The Federal
Reserve System's EFT network for transferring funds between the banks' reserve
accounts [U.S.]. File conversion-The process of translating a file to
a format that can be read by an incompatible computer system.
File: 1. The file produced by basic EDI translation software to serve as input
to the interface. Usually has the same fields as the standard but has each field
expanded to its maximum length. Does not have delimiters. 2. Any file having fixed-record
Front-end: A computer for EDI preprocessing.
A computer used as a front-end usually performs communication and translation
of EDI documents and is connected with a host computer for final processing. It
can perform line control, message handling, code conversion, and functions such
as control of special purpose terminals.
Acknowledgment: The acknowledgment to indicate the results of the syntactical
analysis of electronically encoded transmission. Applies to a functional group
and can include detail.
GE1-UN/ECE WP4 Group of Experts 1 for data elements
and automatic data transfer.
WP4 Group of Experts 2 for procedures and documentation.
GTDI-Guidelines for Trade Data
An interface that provides communication between hosts on a trusted private network
and an untrusted public network such as the Internet.
The outbound translation of data from a sender's format into a message standard.
Generic Standard: A standard that applies to more
than one industry.
Guidelines for Usage:
Directions and regulations for an industry or between trading partners that describe
a subset of a standard by which EDI transmissions are to be formulated. May also
indicate conventions or assumptions made.
HIBCC-Health Industry Business Communications
Council. Health industry group developing an EDI industry guideline. Header-The
segment that indicates the start of an entity to be transmitted. Headers are control
HTML- Hyper Text Markup Language.
The standardized language that allows web browsers to interpret web sites.
HTTP-Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. The protocol
that makes it possible for Web browsers and Web servers to communicate with one
another, HTTP is used between a Web browser and a server to request a document
and transfer its contents. The specification is maintained and developed by the
World Wide Web Consortium.
is HTTP exchanged over an SSL-encrypted session.
Area-The Transaction Set Header Area contains preliminary information that pertains
to the entire transaction set, such as the date, company name, address, P.O. number,
Hierarchy: The relationship
among digital certificates issued by certification authorities to authenticate
the identities of other certification authorities. At the top of the hierarchy
is the self-authenticating root CA.
Each time a Web server sends a file to a browser, a "hit" is recorded in the server
Home Page: The first page that
is launched when a browser is opened and the Internet, intranet or extranet is
Hub: A large company very active
in EDI. Such a company strongly encourages its paper-based business partners to
begin using EDI these in turn are called "spokes". Also called a "sponsor".
Hybrid EDI: Introduced by service providers to
accommodate situations in which only one trading partner is capable of using EDI,
while the other continues to trade using traditional methods involving paper or
fax. An example would be a trading partner sending an electronic purchase order
that is then faxed by a service provider to the recipient.
IDEA-International Data Exchange Association.
Organization based in Brussels that promotes global expansion of EDI.
IPT-International Project Team.
The advisory and support team of the UN/EDIFACT Rapporteur for North America.
IRC-International Record Carrier. Pro-vides network
and messaging services.
Organization. Responsible for development of international data communications
ISO 7372-The U.N. Trade Data
Element Directory adopted by the ISO. ISO 9735-The UN/EDIFACT syntax standards
adopted by the ISQ.
Traffic in Arms Regulations. US export legislation which, in part, restricts the
export of cryptographic systems.
A character or group of characters used to identify or name an item of data and
possibly to indicate certain properties of that data [ISO 2382/4].
Implementation: The complete process of developing
a computer system from the idea's inception to production and eventually high-volume
use. In EDI, emphasizes the expansion to many trading partners.
Guideline: A subset of a national or international standard for ease-of-use within
one industry. The guideline usually indicates only those segments, elements, and
code values needed by the industry. Also usually contains explanatory remarks.
Integrated services digital network (ISDN)- Allows integration of data, voice,
and video over the same digital links [From OSI, Fall 1990].
A quality describing a received message that is identical to the message that
was sent that is, the message was not altered during transmission.
EDI: Two applications exchanging EDI directly within a preprogrammed context.
Interchange: The exchange of information from
one company to another. A group of transaction sets sent from one sender to one
receiver at one time. Delineated by inter-change control segments. Interchange
control header-The data segment that indicates and identifies the beginning of
Interchange Control Segments:
ISA/IEA segments, which identify a unique interchange sent from one sender to
Interchange Control Structure:
Interchange header and trailer segments envelope one or more functional groups
or interchange-related control segments and perform the following functions: 1.
Identifies the sender and receiver 2. Defines the data element separators and
the data segment terminators 3. Provides control information for the inter-change
4. Allows for authorization and security information [X12.5].
Control Trailer: The data segment that indicates the end of an interchange.
Interchange Envelope: Specific data transmission
information in the header and trailer segments, representing an exchange between
a single sender/receiver combination, ISA/IEA-approved.
A secure interconnection between third-party service providers via telecommunications
allows for communication between the network used by the sender and the network
used by the receiver. Provides the sender ease of access to the receiver.
Interface: The connection between items of equipment
Internet: A network of
computers interconnected via telephone lines based on the TCP/IP protocol.
Internet Service Provider: A company that provides
connections for its customers via modem or high-speed direct lines thus providing
access to the Internet.
Account (IMA): An Internet Merchant Account enables a merchant to accept credit
cards over the Internet. IMAs can be obtained through an acquiring bank.
Internet Cash: Purchased from an issuer (bank
or credit institution) and then exchanged freely over the Internet. Generally
for low value payments, both cross border and domestic. Internet cash will be
bought in local currency, with the buyer then sending the e-cash to the seller
in an Internet message. [see also e-cash]
Internal company computer networks built on Internet standards such as TCP/IP
and HTML and connected through security Firewalls to the Internet.
JEDI-Joint Electronic Data Interchange. Group
that sought coordination of X12, TDCC, UCS, and WINS.
A business philosophy focused on reducing inventory levels and thereby increasing
efficiency. Delivery of supplies from the seller to the buyer takes place more
frequently, more quickly, and precisely when needed in the manufacturing process.
Key: An algorithmic pattern
used by a sender to encrypt messages, and by a recipient to decrypt them.
Key Escrow: A system for safeguarding the data
recovery keys of an encryption system, which allow authorized parties to decrypt
the ciphertext without using the encryption or decryption keys.
Management: The establishment and control of a unique key used during the transmission
of encrypted messages between trading partners [See also Encryption key].
The number of bits per second transmitted [See also Baud]. Logon ID-A
predetermined unique code that identifies the user and enables completion of the
Loop: A repetition of
a segment or a group of segments.
Index: A specification for the maximum number of occurrences of a loop.
Authentication Code. A data string attached to a transmission that can be verified
by the receiver. If the string is altered, it indicates that the transmission
is not identical to that which was sent.
Data Networks. MHD-Message Header segment.
Handling Service. Overall capability provided by X.400 structure and message handling
MIME-Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions are additions to the SMTP format. They allow mixed media files to be
transmitted across TCP/IP networks and the Internet. The MIME protocol covers
binary, audio, and video data, as well as EDI and multiple body parts.
MODEM-Modulator/Demodulator. A device that converts
the signal from a computer into a series of tones for transmission over the telephone
lines. The process is reversed at the other end.
Stores. MTA-[X.400] Message Transfer Agent. Entity that provides actual
message delivery service. Uses information from one Pl envelope.
Data: The formatting of data fields in a manner that can be read by a particular
Mandatory: A data element/segment
requirement designator that indicates that the presence of a specified data element
Magnetic Tape: A sequentially
accessed storage device.
to a post office box, a repository of information, usually pro-vided by an EDI
network, belonging to a single user. The mailbox makes it unnecessary for the
user to provide dedicated hardware for the purpose of awaiting incoming calls.
It also facilitates consolidation of EDI transactions, allowing the user to send
to multiple receivers in a single session.
A common term used to describe a computer with greater capabilities and speed
than a microcomputer or mini-computer. Typically, the hardware device that controls
the operation of the computer.
The process of identifying the standard data elements' relationship to application
Max Use: Specifies the maximum
number of times a segment can be used at a location in a transaction set.
Media Exchange: The process of conducting business
between trading partners through the exchange of floppy disks, magnetic tapes,
or other storage media.
Merchant: A merchant
is any person or business that accepts credit cards over the Internet.
Merchant Account: A "bank account" established
with a payment processor for the settlement of credit card transactions. Any merchant
who wants to take credit card orders must establish a merchant account. Internet
merchants need a "Card Not Present Merchant Account."
The EDIFACT term for "transaction set." A message is the collection of data, organized
in segments, exchanged to convey meaning between partners engaged in EDI. It represents
a common business transaction. Each message starts with a message header segment
[such as UNH] and ends with a message trailer segment [UNT]. The
message type identifying the type of business transaction is given in the message
Message Code: A unique
identifier of a message type in EDIFACT.
Digest: A computation used to secure and verify data. The sender of a message
computes a message digest by performing a one-way hash function using a secret
key known only to sender and recipient. The recipient performs the same one-way
hash function using the secret key, which creates a new message digest. The two
message digests are compared, and if they are identical, the recipient knows the
data have been transmitted without modification.
Directory: A listing of identified, named, described, and specified message types.
Message-handling System: Based on the CCITT X.400
suite of protocols, it provides electronic messaging between multi-vendor systems.
The 1984 X.400 guidelines provide capabilities for handling, transferring, and
forwarding messages and is best suited for large hosts and public data networks.
The 1988 X.400 guidelines define a new OSI-style architecture using X.500 Directory
Services. It supports new message-content types and fits into PC environments
[From OSI, Fall 1990].
Header-The service segment starting and uniquely identifying a message.
Message Standard: A standard that addresses the
content, format, and meaning of the message.
Structured Diagram: The graphic display of the layout of a message. Message switching-The
routing of a direct transfer message between computers through the services of
a third-party service provider.
Trailer: The service segment ending a message.
Type: An identified and structured set of data elements covering the requirements
for a specified type of transaction, e.g., an invoice.
A small desktop computer system, sometimes called simply a micro.
A single integrated circuit that controls the operation of a computer.
Micro-payment: Transactions between 24 cents and
$10, typically made in order to download or access graphics, games and information.
Automated Clearing House Association. The national organization of banking clearinghouses
responsible for setting industry standards and rules [U.S.].
form of negative acknowledgment of an error detection in the transmission.
NAP-Network Access Point.
American Wholesale Grocers Association, the organization that led the successful
introduction of microcomputers into EDI and facilitated integration of small users
into the EDI community.
Exchange UCS. A standard form of UCS Electronic Data Inter-change between computers
via a communication network [See also DEX/UCS].
Institute for Standards of Technology. Formerly the National Bureau of Standards
Nested Segment: A segment
that directly relates to another segment in an identified and structured group
of segments covering the requirements for a specific message type.
A group of terminals, computers, and other equipment that uses communication channels
to share data.
Network Management: Identifies
accounting, configuration, security, and performance management. Because a full
network management standard will take several years to complete, an interim standard
will bc specified [From OSI, Fall 1990].
A network security service that proves that a buyer in an online transaction indeed
ordered the goods and the seller actually delivered the goods.
of Shipment: A transaction set that advises of the delivery schedule and pro-vides
a description of the shipment.
ODETTE-Organization for Data Exchange Through
Tele-transmission in Europe.
on the Internet. This standard, created by the Internet Purchasing Roundtable,
is supposed to ensure that all the different e-commerce systems can talk to one
another. OBI, which was released by the OBI Consortium in June 1997, is backed
by leading technology companies such as Actra, InteliSys, Microsoft, Open Market,
OPS-Open Profiling Standard.
A standard backed by Microsoft and Firefly, OPS lets users create a personal profile
of preferences and interests that they want to share with merchants. The idea
behind it is to help consumers protect their privacy without banning online collection
of marketing information.
Protocol. Due in the summer
of 1998?. OTP is intended to standardize a
variety of payment-related activities, including purchase agreements, receipts
for purchases, and payments. It is a competing standard to OBI and is favored
by AT&T, CyberCash, Hitachi, IBM, MasterCard, Oracle, Sun Microsystems, and
OSI-Open Systems Interconnect.
Structure based on seven-layer model developed by ISO, which will allow different
computer manufacturers' machines to communicate with one another.
Transaction Processing: Capture of order and credit card information for later
authorization and transaction processing through a traditional card swipe terminal
or through a computer.
Open Network: A
network with which out-side parties can communicate.
Character Reader: A device that translates printed material into electronic language
that a computer understands.
A data element/segment requirement designator that indicates that the presence
of a specified data element/segment is at the option of the sending party.
Optional Data Element/Segment: A data segment
or element that need not be included in order to validate a standard transaction
Order Confirmation: An email message
notifying a customer that an order has been received and will be processed.
Order Management System: A system that accepts
orders and initiates a process that results in the outbound shipment of a finished
that defines the header information in the X.400 message handling standard.
P7-Protocol for accessing stored messages in the
X.400 message handling standard.
committee developing EDI specifications for the X.400 standards family. Also known
PIDX-Petroleum Industry Data
Exchange. Petroleum industry group to define industry guidelines within the X12
Standard and promote EDI. Secretariat is the American Petroleum Institute.
POS-Point of Sale [from the retail industry]
POP-Point of Presence. Location at which an Internet
Service Provider has established a local interchange to provide connection to
the Internet for its customers.
Telegraph Telephone Administration Packet-A format defined by CCITT for data structure
sequence. Packet switching-Allows for the efficient transmission of messages,
via radio or phone circuits using various paths, by dividing the transmission
into packets of up to 256 characters.
Remittance Transaction: An electronic authorization to make a payment.
Postbox: The receiver of all transmissions in
a VADS network. Synonym for mailbox.
Formats: A unique format developed between trading partners when they choose not
to adopt standard industry formats.
Key: The part of a key pair that is kept secret and is used only by its owner.
This is the key used for decrypting messages and for making digital signatures.
Protocol: A protocol is an algorithm, or step
by step procedure, carried out by more than one party. Examples are network protocols,
in which the steps are intended to ensure reliable transmission of information,
or cryptographic protocols, in which the aim is to maintain some form of security
relationship between the parties.
Standard: An industry/company- specific data format developed by a company for
transmission of data to and from its trading partners. Proprietary for-mats do
not comply with the ASC X12 series of standards.
Ordering System: An industry/ company-specific system that allows a supplier to
provide order entry capabilities to its customers.
Communication standards that determine message content and format, enabling uniformity
The process of allowing two systems with different protocols to communicate.
Private Key: The part of the key in a public key
system that is kept secret and is only used by its owner.
Key: The part of a key pair that is widely distributed, and is not kept secure.
This is the key used for encryption (as opposed to decryption) or for verifying
Public Key Encryption: An encryption
scheme, introduced by Diffie and Hellman in 1976, where each person gets a pair
of keys, called the public key and the private key. Each person's public key is
published while the private key is kept secret. Messages are encrypted using the
intended recipient's public key and can only be decrypted using his private key.
The need for sender and receiver to share secret information (keys) via some secure
channel is eliminated: all communications involve only public keys, and no private
key is ever transmitted or shared.
Card: Aimed at the business market, the purchasing card allows company staff to
deal directly with suppliers and reduce costs by cutting out paper, e.g. the need
for a purchase order. Orders can be placed over the phone and the company receives
management information detailing spending by employee, supplier etc.
QR-Quick-Response [from the apparel industry].
An inventory philosophy in which a business can respond quickly to customer orders.
Analogous to Just-in-Time in manufacturing. Understood to rely on EDI.
European EDI re-insurance and insurance network. Rapporteur [UN/EDIFACT]-A
person nominated by their government and appointed by UN/ECE WP.4 to initiate
and coordinate UN/EDIFACT development work in their geographical area of jurisdiction.
RSA-A public key cipher that can be used both
for encrypting messages and making digital signatures. The letters stand for the
names of the inventors: Rivest, Shamir and Adleman.
Time Credit Card Processing: On-line authorization of a credit card number in
real time informing the merchant that the card has been approved.
Advice Transaction: A transaction set that includes the quantity, description
and condition of the product received.
Clearing House Association: The geographical banking organization of member depositing
institutions. The regional clearing house is the geographical processing point
in the banking system where transactions are received from its member depositing
Reject: A computer program
not accepting a transaction set because it did not meet the validation-authentication
Release: 1. Material Release 2.
A revision [level] of an EDI standard. The newest release supersedes the
one previously issued.
Required Data Elements:
Those elements that must be included in a transmitted transaction set according
to the standards.
The specification of a mandatory, optional, or conditional element or segment.
RSA Encryption: A public-key cryptosystem for
both encryption and authentication it was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi
Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. It works as follows: take two large prime numbers,
p and q, and find their product n = pq n is called the modulus. Choose a number,
e, less than n and relatively prime to (p-1)(q-1), and find its inverse, d, mod
(p-1)(q-1), which means that ed = 1 mod (p-1)(q-1) e and d are called the public
and private exponents, respectively. The public key is the pair (n,e) the private
key is d. The factors p and q must be kept secret, or destroyed. It is difficult
(presumably) to obtain the private key d from the public key (n,e). If one could
factor n into p and q, however, then one could obtain the private key d. Thus
the entire security of RSA is predicated on the assumption that factoring is difficult
an easy method for factoring large prime numbers would break RSA.
SCC JTC/EDI-Standards Council of Canada Joint
Technical Committee on Electronic Data Interchange.
Electronic Transactions. Secure Electronic Transaction specification designed
by MasterCard and Visa to facilitate financial transactions via the Internet.
SET encodes the credit card numbers stored on merchants' servers and enjoys wide
support in the banking community.
of International Trading Procedures (Board). A government agency responding to
the DTI. Developed INTERBRIDGE software and takes a leading role in standards
and development in Great Britain.
Network Architecture. IBM structure for information exchange between computers.
SNI-SNA Network Interconnect.
Socket Layer. A protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting data via the Internet,
in order to protect the data from being intercepted by someone other than the
intended viewer. SSL works by using a private key to encrypt data that's transferred
over the SSL connection. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support
SSL. It is often used to securely transfer credit card numbers and other sensitive
information. By convention, Web pages that require an SSL connection start with
https: rather than http:. See also Transport Layer Security (TLS).
for Worldwide International Financial Telecommunications. An EFT linking system
containing over 2,000 banks.
The issue that must be addressed before transactions can be considered as safe
as a private network between two companies. When using the Internet to conduct
electronic commerce, five security concerns must be addressed, as follows: authenticity
- business partners must be sure of one another's identity, when they trade, digital
certificate technology addresses this concern integrity - transaction or message
can not be tampered with or altered non-fabrication - assure both sender and receiver
of each other's identity non-repudiation - sender can not deny he or she actually
sent a transmission privacy / confidentiality - transmission between sender and
receiver must be private, cryptography technology addresses this concern.
Section Control Segment: A separator in the detail
and summary sections of the header segment to clarify obscure or indistinct elements
Segment: A grouping
of data. It is composed of data elements and is analogous to a record.
Segment Code: A code that uniquely identifies
each segment as specified in a segment directory.
Delimiter Character: Marks the end of a variable-length segment.
Diagram: The schematic that depicts the format and composition of a segment.
Segment Directory [X12.22]-Provides the
purposes and formats of the segments used in the construction of transaction sets.
The directory lists each segment by name, purpose, identifier, the contained data
elements in the specified order, and the requirement designator for each data
Segment Hierarchy: The order of
occurrence of segments within a transaction set.
Identifier: A predefined code that identifies the segment.
Name: A name that identifies the segment. Segment qualifier-A data element that
gives the segment a specific meaning.
Specifications: Distinct attributes of a segment, including structure and content.
Segment Tag: A composite data element, in which
the first component data element contains a code that uniquely identifies a segment
as specified in the relevant segment directory. Additional component data elements
can be conditionally used to indicate the hierarchical level and nesting relation-ship
in a message and the incidence of a segment's repetition [EDIFACT].
Segment Terminator: A special character that indicates
the end of a segment.
A character used for syntactical separation of data.
Table: A portion of a standard that indicates the possible segments, their sequence,
and their attributes for each area of a transaction set. Simple data elements-A
data element containing a single value.
Once the goods have been shipped to the customer, the merchant can key a transaction
for settlement at which time the customer's credit card is charged for the transaction
and the proceeds are deposited into the merchant account.
Agents: Shopping agents let customers comparison shop on line without actually
visiting most merchants' sites. An example of this type of E-commerce facilitator
can be found at http://www.uvision.com,
where you can purchase computers and computer-related equipment without having
to go to the individual manufacturers' own web sites.
cart: A shopping cart is an online catalog that allows a shopper to add items
to a virtual basket, or cart. A running total is kept as the shopper adds and
removes items from the cart.
Plastic card similar to a credit card with embedded electronics / micro chip that
store cash in encrypted form to be used with PCs, telephones, ATMs, and other
devices with built-in card readers.
Levels: A particular release of a standard effective until another release [level]
Store and Forward: The type
of messaging service that allows an EDI transmission to be forwarded when convenient
to the sender and transmitted immediately to the recipient.
and Retrieve: Usually used in con-junction with a mail box system provides for
the storage of a message transmission until the intended receiver accesses the
sys-tem and retrieves the message.
Cryptosystem: The security of a cryptosystem usually depends on the secrecy of
(some of) the keys rather than with the supposed secrecy of the algorithm. A strong
cryptosystem has a large range of possible keys so that it is not possible to
just try all possible keys (a "brute force" approach). A strong cryptosystem will
produce ciphertext which appears random to all standard statistical tests. A strong
cryptosystem will resist all known previous methods for breaking codes ("cryptanalysis").
Sub-element Separator: A unique character used
to delimit the component data elements within a composite data element (used only
Symmetric Cryptography: A
symmetric cipher using the same key for both encryption and decryption. DES, IDEA,
RC2 and RC4 are examples of symmetric ciphers.
The rules for the construction of standards.
TC154-ISO Technical Committee 154 for documents
and data elements in administration, commerce and industry.
Industry Forum. Industry group for development of telecommunications industry
guidelines within the X12 standard.
- Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is a platform-independent communications
protocol that enables computers to talk to one another via networks including
Coordinating Committee former name of the EDIA, or Electronic Data Interchange
TDI-Trading Data Interchange.
Abbreviation for EDI common in Europe.
Electronic Data Interchange Systems. Set up to promote awareness of EDI in Europe.
Extends the concept of the standardized approach of EDI to all users in business,
industry, and government.
Layer Security. Microsoft and Netscape jointly developed this converged protocol.
Tabledriven: Data maintained in table (matrix)
form and used to drive the programming process.
The unique identifier used with segment and data elements [EDIFACT].
Third-party Service Provider: A communications
intermediary between trading partners that acts as a service bureau or center
by providing a link that eliminates the necessity for compatible systems.
Trading Partner: In the broad sense, any company
doing business. A company that sends a purchase order and the company that receives
it are each others' trading partners. The term is often used in a more specific
sense to refer to companies sending and receiving EDI transmissions.
Partner Agreement: The agreement between trading partners that sets forth electronic
conditions and terms for conducting trade.
The ending segment of a set of segments. The trailer is a control structure.
Transaction Level Acknowledgment: Acknowledgment
of receipt and totality of data in a transmission of a functional group or individual
Transaction Set: Complete
business document such as an invoice, a purchase order, or a remittance advice
Transaction Set ID: An identifier
that uniquely identifies the transaction set. This identifier is the first data
element of the transaction set header segment.
Set Diagram: A graphic presentation in a valid transaction that specifies the
sequence of segment order.
Set Header Area: Contains segment information pertinent to the total transaction
Transaction Set Header Segment: Signifies
the beginning of a transaction set.
Set Level: The processing of a transaction set, including sending and receiving.
Transaction Set Line Item Area: Encompasses the
actual business transaction set and includes information, such as quantities,
descriptions and prices.
Summary Area: Contains control information and other data that relate to the total
Transaction Set Trailer Segment:
Signifies the end of a transaction set.
Content: This is news and feature-like editorial material designed as a "wrap"
for E-commerce functions that allow the visitor to purchase the thing he or she
is reading about. It is the merger of the on-line shopping mall and the newspaper
page. Microsoft runs several transactional sites including Sidewalk, Expedia,
Carpoint, Investor, and Boardwalk.
The act of accepting documents in other than standard format and translating them
to the standard and vice versa.
Software: Transforms data into a format that can be read by an otherwise incompatible
system or network at either end of a transmission.
Acknowledgment: The acknowledgment that a total transmission was received with
no error detected.
In the UCS and TDCC message standards, a collection of one or more functional
groups. A transmission group begins with a BG Transmission Control Header Segment
and ends with an EG Transmission Control Trailer Segment. Also known as an interchange.
Truste: this partnership of companies seeks to
build public trust in e-commerce by putting a Good Housekeeping-style seal of
approval on sites that don't violate consumer privacy.
Third Party: An organization, such as a bank, which is trusted by parties to a
transaction to authenticate each party to the other.
UA-[from X.400] User Agent.
Code Council. Association hosting groups for continuing maintenance and development
of the UCS standard. Also assigns UCS Identification Numbers and UPC codes.
UCS-Uniform Communication Standard. EDI standard
used in the grocery industry. Defines both a message format standard and a telecommunication
standard for EDI.
UCS/DSD Task Force-Developed
UCS transaction standards for the direct store delivery segment of the grocery
UNI/EDIFACT-United Nations /
Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport.
UN/ECE-United Nations Economic Commission for
UNIX-An operating system that provides
multi-programming and text developing utilities. First developed at Bell Laboratories
and popularized by UC Berkeley, Sun Microsystems, Santa Cruz Operations, Hewlett-Packard,
IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation and many others.
Nations Joint Electronic Data Interchange Committee established by the Working
Party 4 to develop syntax, messages, and related procedures on EDI.
Standard Electronic Messages.
Nations Trade Data Elements Directory. Contains standards for data fields.
UPC-Uniform Product Code. A standard bar code
system used by the retail industry.
Resource Locator. The "address" for a document on the Internet (e.g. http://www.microsoft.com
for "demonstrator" projects to increase use of EDI/linking of networks [U.K.].
VICS-Voluntary Interindustry Communication Standards.
Formed by retail, textile, and apparel industries to establish standards for product-related
Validation: The process
of determining that compliance standards have been met by a particular document
in an EDI transmission.
File: A file with segments containing data elements that can vary between minimum
and maximum requirements, but which have no set fixed length. A data element delimiter
is required to mark the end of the element and a segment delimiter character is
needed to mark the end of the segment.
Express: An EDI-compatible electronic message system for EFT in NACHA format,
developed by the U.S. Treasury Department. Enables banks using CCD to pay the
U.S. government's suppliers electronically.
Managed Inventory (VMI): A system of inventory replenishment in which the vendor
accepts responsibility for maintaining a customer's inventory levels of the vendor's
products by monitoring POS and inventory information sent by the customer. This
is usually automated through EDI to achieve as smooth a flow of replenishment
Verisign: The dominant certificate-issuing
authority on the Internet.
Identifies the publication of the standard being used for the generation or the
interpretation of data in the X12 standard format. May be found in the functional
group header segment [GS] and in the interchange control header segment
Virtual Private Network: Allows
business-to-business transactions using a "secure tunnel" by encrypting the data
and sending over an untrusted network such as the Internet. More attractive than
EDI because it is cheaper and does not use highly proprietary leased-lines or
Information Network Standards. EDI standards for the ware-housing industry (U.S.).
WP4-Working Party 4 on the facilitation of International
Trade Procedures of the Economic Commission for Europe, a commission of the United
Nations. Working Party 4 has two groups of experts: 1. on Data Elements and Interchange
2. on Trade Procedures.
stored on a consumer's computer hard drive that contains encrypted payment and
billing information used to order goods online. Eventually, wallets could contain
checks, coins and credit cards. (see also Electronic Purse and Electronic Wallet)
Worm: A virus that replicates itself and spreads
to various sites on a network. They do not attack other programs, but can consume
X12-ANSI standard for inter-industry electronic
interchange of business transactions.
Control Structure. This standard provides the interchange envelope of a header
and trailer for the electronic interchange through a data transmission, and it
provides a structure to acknowledge the receipt and processing of this envelope.
Separate segments and data elements not in X12.22 or X12.3.
Control Structure. This standard describes the control segments used to envelop
loops of data segments, to envelop transaction sets, and to envelop groups of
related transaction sets.
standard for packet switching.
standard for message transmission describing a standard approach to building messaging
systems which can be used to carry email, EDI, fax and a range of other data.
X.400 boasts a number of key features not available on Internet mail systems,
including notifications confirming the delivery or non-delivery of messages and
within the X.400 family for EDI messaging. Addresses messaging concerns such as
sender ID, not the content of the business data. One benefit is improved ability
for EDI and E-mail to travel together: for example, a purchase order and an E-mail
plea for meeting the schedule in the purchase order. The purchase order and the
E-mail plea, in this particular example, would be called "body parts".
X.500-Directory services standard of the CCITT.
Comparable to an electronic yellow pages where a wide variety of data such as
names, email and postal addresses, phone numbers, even photos and video clips
can be stored. Information on machines and the routing of email can also be stored
here and used by a message handling system. X.500 is also a series of internationally
- agreed standards detailing how to build such a directory. It is most frequently
used as a corporate address book, but has the potential to become a global source
Telecommunication Union recommendation for certificate formats.
Certificates-The commonly used form of digital certificates, named for CCITT Recommendation
278013780-Data Communications Protocol
(IBM). At the heart of this broad category of RJE (Remote Job Entry) terminals
is the IBM 2780 data transmission terminal and its enhanced version, the 3780.
They both use or emulate IBM's binary synchronous communications protocol.
EDI Sourcebook, Phillips Publishing.
ASC X12-Draft, January 1989. AT&T
ISTEL. CIDX EDI Glossary/Abbreviations.
The Canadian EDI Handbook: A Quick
Read on EDI by Gordon Jenkins and Ray Lancaster. EDI Council of Canada.
ASSG of the Automotive Indus-try Action Group.
EDI: The Competitive Edge by
Phyllis Sokol. McGraw-Hill.
Electronic Data Interchange by Paul Kimberley.
Electronic Data Interchange: A Total Management Guide by Margaret
Emmelhainz. Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Introduction to UN/EDIFACT.
UNSM Invoice-Terms and Definitions.
1991 by EDI, Spread The Word! Dallas, TX.